beitragsbild_herz

Wunderwerk Herz


Das Herz – ein Hochleistungsorgan in unserem Brustkorb – schlägt und pumpt unaufhörlich wie ein verlässliches Uhrwerk. Damit unser Herz im Takt bleibt, sollten wir es schützen und stärken.
Ein Artikel von Susanne Rosenberger

Das menschliche Herz schlägt in einem durchschnittlichen Leben 3 Milliarden Mal, ungefähr 100.000 Mal am Tag, und pumpt rund 10.000 Liter Blut jeden Tag durch den Körper. Erkrankt dieser Muskel, drohen schwere Leiden wie Herzinfarkt, Koronare Herzkrankheit und Herzinsuffizienz. Bei einer Koronaren Herzkrankheit sind die Herzkranzgefäße verengt und somit das Risiko für einen Herzinfarkt (kompletter Verschluss eines Herzkranzgefäßes) stark erhöht. Bei einem akuten Herzinfarkt (Myokardinfarkt) wird der Herzmuskel nicht mehr mit Sauerstoff versorgt, es besteht die Gefahr eines plötzlichen Herztodes. Leidet ein Mensch an Herzinsuffizienz (Herzschwäche), kann der Herzmuskel nicht mehr ausreichend Blut in den Körper pumpen, Luftnot und Müdigkeit sind typische Symptome.

Statistik-Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrank1Belastungen fürs Herz
Foto: Uzhursky - fotolia.comHerz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen sind in Österreich noch immer die häufigste Todesursache. Zu den Haupt-Risikofaktoren für Herzerkrankungen zählen erhöhte Blutfette, Rauchen, Diabetes, Bluthochdruck, Übergewicht, Bewegungs- und Schlafmangel, psychosozialer Stress und eine ungesunde Ernährung. Bei Frauen ergeben sich durch einen erhöhten Stresspegel durch die Doppelbelastung von Familie und Beruf sowie durch die Einnahme der Pille in Kombination mit dem Rauchen noch weitere Risiken.

Auch Alkohol, Zigaretten, aber auch Lärm, Feinstaub und Schwermetalle sind wahres Gift für unser Herz. Rund 80 Prozent aller Herzinfarkte vor dem 50. Lebensjahr sind vom Rauchen verschuldet. Wetterextreme wie plötzliche Wetterumschwünge, Hitzeperioden oder winterliche Minusgrade belasten das Herz-Kreislauf-System zusätzlich immens und können für Herzpatienten sogar lebensbedrohlich werden. In der kalten Jahreszeit kommt es gehäuft zu Herzinfarkten, „weil sich bei gefährdeten Patienten die Herzkranzgefäße durch Kälte zusammenziehen und Ablagerungen an engen Stellen das Gefäß verschließen können“, klärt uns Dr
. Ursula Fürst, Leitende
Oberärztin der Inneren Medizin bei den Barmherzigen Brüdern Salzburg, auf.

Allen Risikofaktoren zum Trotz gibt es wichtige Maßnahmen, um einem Herzinfarkt vorzubeugen. Dazu zählen eine „herzfreundliche“ Lebensweise mit genügend Bewegung und gesunder Ernährung. Durch ein moderates Ausdauertraining lässt sich das Herz-Kreislauf-System stärken, hoher Blutdruck wird normalisiert und der Cholesterinspiegel gesenkt.

Als weitere wichtige Vorsorgemaßnahme sollten die Cholesterin- und Blutdruckwerte regelmäßig vom Arzt kontrolliert werden. „Besonders Patienten mit erblicher Vorbelastung sollten regelmäßig eine Gesundenuntersuchung beim Hausarzt oder Internisten machen lassen, z.B. wenn Verwandte ersten Grades bereits eine manifeste Herzerkrankung hatten“, rät Dr. Fürst.

Foto: Syda Productions - fotolia.comFrauenherzen schlagen anders
Herzerkrankungen sind keine reine Männersache! Auch bei Frauen zählen Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen zur Todesursache Nummer eins. Dennoch wird bei Frauen ein Herzinfarkt häufig übersehen, weil sie die Symptome falsch deuten und zu spät zum Arzt kommen

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. „Während bei Männern Schmerzen in der Brust und Ausstrahlen in den linken Arm zu den klassischen Anzeichen für einen Herzinfarkt zählen, kündigt er sich bei Frauen häufig mit vegetativen Symptomen wie etwa Übelkeit, Erbrechen, Atemnot, unspezifischen Kreislaufbeschwerden oder Oberbauchschmerzen an,“ so die Internistin Dr. Ursula Fürst. „Kommen Frauen zu spät in die Notaufnahme, wurde bereits Herzmuskel zerstört, sie werden später einer invasiven Therapie zugewiesen und haben hinterher einen schlechteren Outcome, also ein schlechteres Behandlungsergebnis. Time is heart!“

Da Frauen bis zur Menopause durch einen erhöhten Östrogenspiegel einen hormonell bedingten Gefäßschutz haben, der vor Verkalkungen und Ablagerungen schützt, treten Infarkte gehäuft ab dem 50. bis 60. Lebensjahr auf.

Obwohl das Organ bei beiden Geschlechtern hinsichtlich Anatomie, Funktion und Steuerung ähnlich ist, weisen Frauen- und Männerherzen eine Reihe von Unterschieden auf: Frauenherzen sind im Vergleich kleiner, schlagen aber schneller, um die gleiche Leistung zu erbringen. Auch die Herzkranzgefäße sind bei Frauen kleiner. Neben diesen anatomischen Abweichungen unterscheiden sich die Herzen der beiden Geschlechter in der Reaktion auf Hormone, Medikamente und Stress. Noch immer werden Medikamente in der Regel an Männern getestet und die Dosierung in weiterer Folge auf Frauen übertragen. „Mit Medikamenten muss man bei Frauen sehr aufpassen, weil sie ein langsameres Reizleitungssystem im Herzen haben als der Mann“, betont die Fachärztin für Kardiologie. All diese Faktoren zeigen, dass ein Frauenherz ein anderes Behandlungskonzept benötigt als ein Männerherz.

Foto: yodiyim - fotolia.comHappy heart – broken heart
Das „Broken-Heart-Syndrom“ (Stress-Kardiomyopathie, Tako-Tsubo-Syndrom) tritt fast ausschließlich bei älteren Frauen in einem durchschnittlichen Alter von 70 Jahren auf. Da im Blut der Betroffenen durch eine starke emotionale Belastung (wie etwa den Verlust eines geliebten Menschen, Unfall, Operation) zu viele Stresshormone zirkulieren, verkrampft sich der Herzmuskel und es äußern sich ähnliche Beschwerden wie bei einem Herzinfarkt: heftige Brustschmerzen, Atemnot, Übelkeit. „Das EKG und einige Laborwerte können anfangs auf einen Herzinfarkt hinweisen, erst die Herzkatheter-Untersuchung liefert einen aussagekräftigen Befund, dass kein Herzkranzgefäß verstopft ist“, erläutert Dr. Fürst.

Das gebrochene Herz zeigt deutlicher als jede andere akute Erkrankung, wie eng Körper, Geist und Seele miteinander verbunden sind. Auch in täglichen Redewendungen wie „sich etwas zu Herzen nehmen“, „das Herz bleibt vor Schreck stehen“, „etwas liegt mir am Herzen“ wird die Verbindung zwischen Herz und Seele deutlich. In seltensten Fällen kann auch ein positives Erlebnis wie eine Hochzeit oder ein Lottogewinn derart emotional aufwühlen, dass es dem Herzen merklich zusetzt – dies nennt man „Happy-Heart-Syndrom“.

Das Herz sollte uns eine Herzensangelegenheit sein!
Indem wir unsere Lebensgewohn-heiten „herzfreundlich“ gestalten,  nutzen wir die Chance auf ein langes, gesundes Leben. Denn wir haben unsere Herzgesundheit zu einem hohen Maß selbst in der Hand…

Fotos: Uzhursky -, Syda Productions -, yodiyim – fotolia.com

Regeln für ein gesundes Herz:

  • Blutdruck senken
  • Cholesterinwerte normalisieren
  • mit dem Rauchen aufhören
  • regelmäßige Einnahme der verordneten Medikamente
  • Bewegungsprogramm an der frischen Luft
  • ein „herzfreundlicher“ Lebenswandel (Stress und Lärm vermeiden, ausreichend Schlaf)
  • Omega-3-Fettsäuren in Form von Fischölkapseln zur Prävention von Arteriosklerose

Was ist im Notfall eines Herzinfarktes zu tun?

    • Wenn der Patient Beschwerden hat und ein Verdacht auf Herzinfarkt vorliegt, sofort den Notarzt rufen. Nicht warten! Bei einem Herzinfarkt zählt jede Minute!
    • Den Patienten beruhigen, hinsetzen (nicht unbedingt legen), seine Füße hochlegen, Fenster öffnen, enge Kleidung lockern. Der Patient sollte ansprechbar sein und darf nicht alleine gelassen werden.
    • Wenn der Patient im schlimmsten Fall das Bewusstsein verliert, mit der Herzdruckmassage beginnen.
    • Mit dem Rettungswagen in die Klinik, auf keinen Fall selber mit dem Auto fahren!

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