Neurodermitis: Neue Wirkstoffe und wichtige Tipps


Neurodermitis tritt häufig auf. Etwa 10 Prozent aller jungen Österreicher leiden mittlerweile an der Hautkrankheit, die sich in einem quälenden Juckreiz, Rötungen, nässenden Ekzemen und Schuppungen äußert.
 Ein Artikel von Maria Riedler
Foto: quayside -fotolia.com

Foto: quayside -fotolia.com

Bis zur Pubertät oder im jungen Erwachsenenalter verschwindet das Leiden häufig von selbst. Nur ein bis drei Prozent der Österreicher über 25 Jahren bleiben betroffen. Neuerkrankungen unter Erwachsenen kommen selten vor. Neurodermitis gab es bei der Entdeckung dieser Erkrankung – im 19. Jahrhundert – nur vereinzelt, warum ist sie so im Anstieg? Univ.-Prof
. Dr. Josef Riedler vom Kinder- und Jugendkrankenhaus in Schwarzach: „Man vermutet, dass die heute im Vergleich zu früher intensiven Hygienemaßnahmen die Entstehung der Krankheit mit begünstigen.“
Nach dieser sogenannten Hygiene-Hypothese – heute Biodiversitätshypothese genannt – wird das Immunsystem in unserer zivilisierten Gesellschaft immer weniger mit krankmachenden Erregern konfrontiert, hat zu wenig Übung und überreagiert daher bereits, wenn es mit natürlichen Substanzen wie Blütenpollen, Hausstaubmilben, Tierhaaren oder bestimmten Nahrungsmitteln in Kontakt kommt. Die Überempfindlichkeit des körperreigenen Abwehrsystems äußert sich bei Neurodermitikern in Form von Juckreiz, Rötungen, nässenden Ekzemen oder schuppiger Haut. Die Folge ist ein Teufelskreis: Auf das Jucken folgt Kratzen, die Haut wird rissig. Durch die rissige Haut können die verschiedenen, wiederum den Juckreiz auslösenden Substanzen leichter in die Haut eindringen und die Symptome verstärken bzw. neuerlich auslösen.

„Neben dem westlichen Lebensstil und Umweltfaktoren als Ursache für die Zunahme der Erkrankung spielen auch die Gene eine Rolle“, so Riedler, der im Rahmen eines europäischen Forschungsprojektes in den letzten 20 Jahren viel zur Erforschung bei der Zunahme von Allergien beitrug. „Wenn beide Eltern Neurodermitiker sind, hat ein Kind ein 70-prozentiges Risiko, ebenfalls an Neurodermitis zu erkranken.“

Früherkennung wichtig

Um abzuklären, ob es sich bei den beschriebenen Symptomen um Neurodermitis handelt, sollte man möglichst schnell einen Arzt aufsuchen. Frühzeitig erkannt, kann Neurodermitis oft schon mit simplen Maßnahmen gelindert werden, und die Patienten haben gute Chancen, über einen längeren Zeitraum nahezu beschwerdefrei zu bleiben. Heilbar ist Neurodermitis allerdings nicht. Für die Diagnose wird zunächst ein Arzt-Patient-Gespräch geführt, bei dem abgeklärt wird, wo, wann und wie sehr die Haut juckt und seit wann etwaige Hautveränderungen bestehen. Dazu gehören häufig auch Allergie- und Bluttest, um herauszufinden, ob die Erkrankten auf bestimmte Substanzen allergisch reagieren, damit sie die Allergieauslöser meiden können, was bereits Teil der Therapie ist.

Foto: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Josef Riedler

Foto: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Josef Riedler

„Vielleicht wird es uns in absehbarer Zukunft gelingen, durch Bestimmen der individuellen genetischen Veranlagung, sehr persönliche Ratschläge zur Vorbeugung von Neurodermitis oder anderen allergischen Erkrankungen zu geben“,

stellt der Mediziner und Wissenschaftler, Univ.-Prof. Dr. Josef Riedler, für Betroffene in Aussicht.

„Neue Präparate bringen in der individuellen Therapie eine spürbare Verbesserung.“

Foto: -Martinan -fotolia.com

Foto: -Martinan -fotolia.com

Therapie

„Hauptpfeiler der Therapie ist eine konsequente Pflege der Haut.“ Pflege heißt in diesem Fall, die Haut täglich gut mit medizinischen Cremen und Salben eincremen, um die Entstehung des Juckreizes zu verhindern, der in den Teufelskreis aus Jucken, Aufkratzen, Rötung, Schuppung, Bildung von Rissen, Ekzemen und auch Pilzinfektionen führt. „Entsteht eine Entzündung, soll mit entzündungshemmenden Medikamenten behandelt werden. Dies kann mit schonenden und nebenwirkungsarmen kortisonhältigen Salben oder Cremen erfolgen. Alternativ besteht oft auch die Möglichkeit mit neuen, kortisonfreien Medikamenten zu therapieren.“

Foto: gstockstudio - fotolia.com

Foto: gstockstudio – fotolia.com

Worauf zu achten ist

Worauf Neurodermitis-Patienten außerdem achten sollten: Heißes Duschen oder langes Baden meiden. Viele Patienten nützen auch Methoden aus der komplementären Medizin, wie etwa Akupunktur. Besteht eine Nahrungsmittelallergie – was allerdings wesentlich seltener der Fall ist, als von den Patienten und ihren Angehörigen angenommen –, empfiehlt es sich, die  allergieauslösenden Nahrungsmittel wegzulassen

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. Wer den Verlauf der Krankheit positiv beeinflussen will, der sollte neben natürlicher und gesunder Ernährung unbedingt auf regelmäßige sportliche Aktivität und auf Entspannung setzen. Yoga oder autogenes Training, Spaziergänge in der Natur, Musik – seien Sie achtsam sich selbst gegenüber und beobachten Sie, was Ihnen hilft.


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