beitrag_zeit

Mysterium Zeit


Sie scheint immer schneller zu vergehen – je älter wir werden, aber auch je schneller sich das Leben um uns abspielt. Zeit ist wohl eines der wertvollsten Dinge – aber schwierig zu (be)greifen. Flüchtig und unwiederbringlich fasziniert die „Vierte Dimension“ und birgt bis heute ungelöste Rätsel. Ist denn tatsächlich alles eine Frage von Zeit und Raum?
Ein Artikel von Doris Thallinger

Der Stoff, aus dem das Leben gemacht ist“ – so bezeichnete einst Benjamin Franklin die Zeit, mit dem Aufruf, gerade diese nicht zu verschwenden. Passend, stammt doch auch das allseits geflügelte Zitat „Zeit ist Geld“ von eben-diesem. Nur, einmal verlorene Zeit ist unwiederbringlich. Sie fließt. Auch ohne unser Zutun. Oftmals fühlen wir uns ihrer beraubt, manchmal haben wir aber sogar ein Zuviel davon.
Das Thema Zeit beschäftigt die Menschheit. Physiker von Newton über Einstein bis hin zu Hawkins, Philosophen, Psychologen, Gehirnforscher: Sie alle gehen der Frage nach: Wo kommt sie her und wo geht sie hin?
Fragen, die sich auch jeder einzelne von uns stellt. Tag für Tag: Wo soll ich die Zeit nur hernehmen? Wo ist sie hin verschwunden? Wer hat sie mir gestohlen? Warum vergehen gerade die Stunden so schnell, die wir genießen? Warum dauert eine Stunde so viel länger, wenn wir auf etwas warten?

Fotos: Sergey Nivens - stock.photo.com

Fotos: Sergey Nivens – stock.photo.com

Die Körperuhr
Tatsächlich besitzt der Mensch keinen Sinn für Zeit per se. Sehr wohl aber funktioniert das Gehirn als Taktgeber und unser physiologischer Ablauf richtet sich nach einem immer wiederkehrenden Rhythmus, der übrigens nicht nur von den Hell-Dunkel-Phasen der Umwelt abhängt. Experimente haben gezeigt, dass Menschen, die isoliert vom Tageslicht waren, automatisch einen Tagesrhythmus von ca. 24 Stunden an-nehmen, der Körper in dieser Periode sämtliche physiologischen Abläufe abspult. Dieser natürliche Rhythmus beträgt zwischen 24 und 26 Stunden. Vom körpereigenen Tagesrhythmus hängt übrigens auch ab, ob man zu den Nachteulen oder den Frühaufstehern zählt. Ein Rhythmus, der durch den Körper naturgemäß vorgegeben ist, aber aufgrund der Gesellschaft leider sehr oft missachtet wird, was der Gesundheit nicht unbedingt förderlich ist. In besonders drastischen Fällen spricht man gar von sozialem Jetlag. Die Körperuhr an sich regelt zwar den „inneren Tageslablauf“, mit unserem Zeitempfinden jedoch hat sie nichts zu tun.

Wie lange dauert „jetzt“?
Angenommen wird, dass das Gehirn einen Takt vorgibt, der sowohl unsere Wahrnehmung als auch unser Handeln als Konsequenz steuert. Demnach verarbeiten unsere neuronalen Systeme alle Vorgänge, die sich innerhalb einer Dauer von 30 Millisekunden abspielen, als gleichzeitig auftretend. Unser Hirn gibt uns so die Illusion eines kontinuierlichen Ablaufs der Welt. Interessant ist: Je langsamer der Wahrnehmungstakt, desto höher erscheint demjenigen die Geschwindigkeit der Welt, die sich um ihn herum abspielt.
Um alle Reize der Umwelt in eine zeitliche Abfolge zu integrieren, benötigt unser Gehirn ca. drei Sekunden. Was innerhalb von maximal drei Sekunden geschieht, wird als zusammengehörig erkannt und ergibt so etwas wie den „Moment“. Dieser Drei-Sekunden-Rhythmus begegnet uns übrigens ständig in Musikstücken und Gedichten und ist gleichzusetzen mit einer Atemperiode.
Alles, was über diese drei Sekunden hinausgeht, muss im Kurzzeit- oder Arbeitsgedächtnis weiterverarbeitet werden, das schließlich die zeitliche Brücke baut zwischen den Momenten des Erlebens. So entsteht Kontinuität.

Die Wahrnehmung der Zeit
Können Menschen nun so kurze Zeitabstände wie drei Sekunden noch relativ gut einschätzen, hängt das Zeitempfinden für längere Abschnitte von vielen Faktoren ab und kann sehr trügerisch sein

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. So hängt die Wahrnehmung der Zeit vom aktuellen Befinden desjenigen ab, der sie beurteilt: Ist man gelangweilt oder wartet auf etwas, vergeht die Zeit langsam, erleben wir eine gute Zeit, verrinnt sie viel zu schnell. Was wie eine Schikane klingt, ist leicht erklärt: Sobald wir uns intensiv mit der Zeit beschäftigen, also darauf achten, wie sie vergeht (oder eben nicht vergeht), schleicht sie dahin. Sind wir abgelenkt oder beschäftigt, sodass wir gar keine Möglichkeit haben, über sie nachzudenken, rennt sie. Es ist fast so, als würde sie sich rächen, wenn wir ihr keine Aufmerksamkeit schenken.

Foto: 1000pixels - stock.photo.com

Foto: 1000pixels – stock.photo.com

Das Paradoxon der Zeit
Wie wir einen bestimmten Zeitraum bewerten, hängt davon ab, zu welchem Zeitpunkt wir dieses Zeiturteil fällen: während es passiert und wir uns mitten in diesem er-lebten Zeitraum befinden, also prospektiv; oder aber danach, rückblickend, also retrospektiv. Zwei Beispiele dazu: Sitzt man im Wartezimmer, vergeht die Zeit schleichend langsam – im Nachhinein betrachtet, war dieselbe Zeit nur von kurzer Dauer. Oder: In einer anregenden Unterhaltung fließen die Minuten und Stunden nur so dahin. Erinnert man sich später an diese Zeit, erscheint sie einem von viel längerer Dauer.
Grund für dieses Phänomen ist die Anzahl und Intensität der Erinnerungen. Sowohl die im Gedächtnis haften gebliebenen Ereignisse als auch einschneidende Veränderungen bestimmen die subjektive Dauer eines Zeitraums. Je mehr davon innerhalb eines Zeitraums stattfinden, als umso länger empfinden wir diesen. Zeitabschnitte, in denen kaum etwas passiert ist, das er wert ist, uns im Gedächtnis haften zu bleiben, empfinden wir retrospektiv als sehr kurz.
Anders formuliert: Aufregende, neue Erfahrungen und Erlebnisse dehnen die Zeit! Zumindest so lange, bis sie zur Routine werden, dann nämlich vergeht die Zeit wieder schneller. Zu beobachten ist dieses Phänomen auch im Urlaub. Während die ersten Tage ob all der neuen Eindrücke als relativ lange andauernd in Erinnerung sind, werden sie kürzer, je weniger Neues entdeckt wird. Je mehr Routine, desto schneller vergeht die Zeit.

Wer mehr erlebt, hat länger Zeit!
Mit zunehmendem Alter scheint es jedem gleich zu gehen: Die Zeit rast immer schneller dahin. Das liegt ganz einfach an der zunehmenden Routine im Leben. Neue Erlebnisse werden weniger intensiv wahrgenommen und bleiben entsprechend weniger in Erinnerung. Während sich in unserer Kindheit und Jugend ständig etwas zu verändern scheint, wir fast tagtäglich etwas Neues tun und lernen, werden die Ereignisse, an die wir uns wirklich und voller Farbe und Leidenschaft erinnern, von Jahr zu weniger. Und so entsteht das Gefühl, dass sich die Erde schneller und schneller dreht.
Diesem Rennen mit der Zeit zu entkommen, ist kaum möglich – sicher jedoch kann jeder für sich ein kleines bisschen auf die Bremse treten, egal, in welchem Lebensabschnitt man sich befindet. Die Zauberformel lautet: neugierig bleiben, Unbekanntes an sich heranlassen, neue Erfahrungen sammeln! Denn: Je größer der Erfahrungsschatz, je emotionaler und abwechslungsreicher die Momente, an die man sich erinnert, desto länger fühlt sich die Lebenszeit an. Wer ein abwechslungsreiches Leben voller Gefühle führt, lebt lange!

Achtsamkeit
Achtsamkeit und sich bewusst dem Hier und Jetzt zu widmen, das sind die bewährten Mittel, die es möglich machen, die Zeit zumindest ein wenig anzuhalten. Seine Umgebung und auch sich selbst bewusst in allen Einzelzeiten wahrzunehmen, schafft neue Erlebnisse, nicht selten Aha-Erlebnisse! Bewusst die Gedanken und Sinne auf das Hier und Jetzt zu lenken, schafft Kontrolle über die Zeitabläufe und damit eine gefühlte Entschleunigung.

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