Alles Elektro – oder wie?


Der Elektroantrieb für Automobile ist zurzeit ein fast schon politisches Thema, auch weil der Klimaschutz die Verringerung des CO2-Ausstoßes verlangt. Dass die Produktion und Entsorgung von Batterien ebenfalls in eine Umweltbilanz einbezogen werden sollte, wird nahezu ignoriert, wenn es um die Forderung nach umweltfreundlichen Antrieben geht.
Ein Artikel von René Herndl

Fotos: Hersteller

„E“ ist absolut „in“ und viele Hersteller bringen Hybrid- und Elektromodelle auf den Markt oder kündigen sogar ganze Baureihen mit Elektroantrieb an. Die Realität der Elektromobilität verändert sich entsprechend rasant zu einem immer größeren Angebot und zu größeren Reichweiten, aber noch überwiegen die Konzepte, die Ankündigungen und vor allem hohe Preise für aktuelle Modelle
. Dennoch dürfte die mobile Zukunft – zumindest im urbanen Bereich – eine elektrische sein, wenn man die Strategie der Autofirmen und die politischen Vorgaben als Belege nimmt.

Die Mobilität ohne Abgase scheint in der öffentlichen Diskussion und in den Entwicklungszentren der Autoindustrie fast ausschließlich eine elektrische zu sein, auch, weil die Umweltpolitik Alternativen zur Verbrennung fossiler Brennstoffe fordert – und fördert. So ist auch der Erfolg sogenannter Hybride, also elektrischer Hilfsmotorisierungen – zu erklären, die bei nunmehr fast schon allen großen Herstellern im Programm sind: Die Verbrauchswerte sinken teilweise drastisch. Der Pionier vollelektrischer Autos moderner Bauart, der amerikanische Hersteller Tesla, hat das Pferd von der anderen Seite aufgezäumt und mit luxuriösen Autos eine technische Sonderstellung errungen, die nun in erschwinglichere Modelle auch kleinerer Klassen münden soll, wobei die Umweltfreundlichkeit der Produktion kaum hinterfragt wird.

Wachsendes Angebot

Große europäische Erzeuger setzen ebenfalls auf „E“, etwa BMW, die mit dem i3 und dem i8 zwei Modelle gegensätzlichen Charakters präsentiert haben und den kleineren i3 nun auch mit mehr Reichweite und mit Range Extender anbieten. Bei VW wird intensiv an einer elektrischen Baureihe getüftelt, bei Opel rangiert der Ampera mit einer unterstützten Reichweite von rund 500 Kilometern die (fiktive) Reichweitenrangliste an. Die Hybrid-Modelle von Toyota (samt Luxus-Ableger Lexus) waren jahrelang Trendsetter und bei umweltbewussten Konsumenten beliebt, wurden aber kaum weiterentwickelt. Jetzt ändert Toyota angeblich seine Strategie und will ab 2020 Elektroautos auch mit einer deutlich größeren Reichweite auf den Markt bringen. Bei Nissan favorisiert man mit „e-Power“ das Range-Extender-Konzept, wobei das Modell Leaf eines der meistverkauften E-Mobile unserer Zeit ist. Interessant wird auch der Ausgang des Saab-Experiments: Unter chinesischer Regie soll der schwedische Traditionshersteller wieder auferstehen – als reine Elektromarke.

Reichweiten und Ladestationen

Ein gewisses Problem stellt die Dichte der Ladestationen dar, insbesondere der Schnell-Ladestationen, was aber bald behoben sein wird: Heimladestationen werden ohnehin als Grundlage für die Hauptversorgung im urbanen Umfeld dienen und die neuesten Tesla Super Charger laden derzeit schon in kurzer Zeit bis zu 145 kW! (Man braucht für 300 km bei weitem keine 100 kWh – es genügen ca. 40 kWh. Mit 100 kWh werden im Tesla Model S 100D Reichweiten von 500+ km erreicht). 400 km Reichweite bietet schon jetzt der Renault Zoe – zumindest theoretisch (weil auch hier die effektiven Werte relativ weit von den theoretischen NEFZ-Werten abweichen, ähnlich dem Normverbrauch bei Benzin- und Dieselautos).

Spannende mobile Zukunft

Gespannt darf man sein, welche Konzepte neben der E-Mobilität als Alternativen entwickelt werden, etwa jene der Brennstoffzellen, also des Wasserstoffantriebs, wie er momentan nur in zwei Serienautos angeboten wird. Aber auch hier liegt das Hauptproblem in der großflächigen Versorgung, obwohl hier die Umweltbilanz noch besser sein könnte als bei der Erzeugung von Hochleistungsbatterien, die in absehbarer Zeit als Energiequellen für die Mobilität verfügbar sein werden.

P.S.: Es gibt in etlichen Bundesländern für den Ankauf von Elektrofahrzeugen auch Förderungen unterschiedlichster Art, die sich jedoch schnell ändern können und deren Höhe und Ziel sehr verschieden sind. Daten dazu sind sowohl bei Autohändlern als auch über die jeweilige Landesregierung (Website) zu erfahren.

E-Mobilität – Kurzdefinitionen

Ein Hybrid-Elektrokraftfahrzeug ist ein Kraftfahrzeug, das von mindestens einem Elektromotor und einem (meist konventionellen) Motor angetrieben wird. Es bezieht die Energie aus einem eingebauten Speicher für elektrische Energie und aus Benzin oder Dieselkraftstoff

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. Gegenwärtig werden Verbrennungsmotoren mit Elektromotoren und Akkumulatoren kombiniert, es lassen sich aber beispielsweise auch Brennstoffzellen einsetzen.

Ein Plug-in-Hybrid ist ein Kraftfahrzeug mit Hybridantrieb, dessen Akkumulator sowohl über den Verbrennungsmotor als auch am Stromnetz geladen werden kann.

Als Range Extender (Reichweitenverlängerer) werden zusätzliche Aggregate in  Elektrofahrzeugen bezeichnet, die die Reichweite erhöhen. Die am häufigsten eingesetzten Range Extender sind Verbrennungsmotoren, die einen Generator antreiben, der wiederum den Akku und Elektromotor mit Strom versorgt.

Experten meinen, dass die Bedeutung des Range Extenders in Zukunft wächst. Zumindest bis leistungsfähigere Batterien zur Verfügung stehen.


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